Mishna Berura Summaries

Siman 89 – When it’s time for Shacharis

  • Wait until the sun rises before beginning Shacharis Shemoneh Esray. (MB 1)
  • In extenuating circumstances you can begin as early as dawn (defined by the lighting up of the entire Eastern horizon – MB3, BeH “v’im”), just be sure not to say the beracha on tefillin or Krias Shema before misheyakir. (MB 1)
  • The zman tefilla of Shacharis extends until four hours which is a third of the day. If you didn’t daaven by then on purpose, daaven shelo b’zmano until chatzos but make a condition beforehand saying: “If min hadin I am pottur then this tefilla should be betoras nedova.” (ShA 1 – MB 6)
  • Once dawn arrives you must not do the following things before beginning the berachos:

a:Go to someone’s house to greet him with “Shalom” or even “Good morning” if it’s out of your way.(ShA 2)                                       

b:Greet anyone with a bow.  (ShA 2)                                                                                                                                                                           

c: Leave your makom kavua in shul to go greet someone. (MB 9)

  • Even once you have begun the berachos you still should not do the following until after Shemoneh Esray:

a:go to someone’s house to greet him with “Shalom” or a bow.  (MB 14)                                                                                                         

b:to get involved with your needs. (ShA 3)                                                                                                                                                             

c:start on a journey. (ShA 3)                                                                                                                                                                                     

d:eating and drinking. (ShA 3)

  • If someone greets you with “Shalom” before you have daavened, you may respond with Shalom. (MB 16)
  • If you happen to meet your friend before saying the berachos, you should rather change your greeting from “Shalom” to “Good morning” so that you pay attention not to tarry until you daaven. (ShA 2)
  • Starting on a journey is likewise forbidden once the time for Mincha or Maariv has arrived. (MB 19)
  • Travelling before daavening is ossur even if you will also have a minyan to daaven at your destination. (MB 20)
  • You are allowed to drink water, tea, and coffee before daavening but it shouldn’t be with a group of friends. This is allowed also on Shabbos. (ShA 3-MB 22)
  • Food eaten for health (even if he is not very sick), and medicines are allowed to be consumed before daavening. (ShA 3 – MB 24)
  • If you are very hungry or thirsty to the point that it disturbs your kavana then you are allowed to eat and drink. (ShA 4 – MB 25,26)
  • If you wake up even at midnight you shouldn’t eat just for pleasure until you daven Shacharis, though you can eat for strength. (MB 28)
  • It is ossur to begin learning Torah from just before sunrise until you daaven, if you will be daavening privately. If you have someone who isn’t learning to remind you to daaven before the sof z’man then you may learn. (ShA 6 – MB 31, 32, 34)
  • You are allowed to be involved in matters of Heaven even before daavening. e.g. food shopping on Erev Shabbos. (MB 36)
  • For the traveler:

a:If you need to begin travelling early, you can daaven from as early as dawn. But the minhag is to say the tefillos in order so as to be somaych geula to tefilla and postpone the Shemoneh Esray until after sunrise even though the Shemoneh Esray will be recited while on the move.

b:If you are on the road and are afraid that the z’man Krias Shema will pass – say only the Shema without the berachos. At the next stop you will daaven as usual repeating the Shema with its berachos.

c:If you are afraid that sof z’man tefilla will also pass before the next stop – daaven everything in order while on the move.

d:When travelling at night, you should postpone Maariv until you arrive at the next stop as long as it will be before dawn. If you think you won’t have a calm place to daaven at your destination, daaven Maariv on the move. (MB 42)